IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors replaces IAS 8 Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Fundamental Errors and Changes in Accounting Policies and should be applied for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005.
The standard retains the ‘impracticability’ criterion for exemption from changing comparative information when changes in accounting policies are applied retrospectively and prior period errors are corrected. The standard now includes a definition of ‘impracticable’ and guidance on its interpretation.
Based on this standard, applying a requirement is impracticable when the entity cannot apply it after making every reasonable effort to do so.
Paragraph 27 IAS 8 stated that when it is impracticable for an entity to apply a new accounting policy retrospectively, because it cannot determine the cumulative effect of applying the policy to all prior periods, the entity, in accordance with paragraph 25, applies the new policy prospectively from the start of the earliest period practicable.
It therefore disregards the portion of the cumulative adjustment to assets, liabilities and equity arising before the date.
Changing an accounting policy is permitted even if it is impracticable to apply the policy prospectively for any prior period.
Paragraphs 50-53 provide guidance on when it is impracticable to apply a new accounting policy to one or more prior periods.
Paragraphs 50 stated that in some circumstances, it is impracticable to adjust comparative information for one or more prior periods to achieve comparability with the current period. For example, data may not have been collected in the prior period(s) in a way that allows either retrospective application of a new accounting policy (including, for the purpose of paragraphs 51-53, its prospective application to prior periods) or retrospective restatement to correct a prior period error, and it may be impracticable to recreate the information.
It is frequently necessary to make estimates in applying an accounting policy to elements of financial statements recognized or disclosed in respect of transactions, other events or conditions. Estimation is inherently subjective, and estimates may be developed after the reporting period.
Developing estimates is potentially more difficult when retrospectively applying an accounting policy or making a retrospective restatement to correct a prior period error, because of the longer period of time that might have passed since the affected transaction, other event or condition occurred. However, the objective of estimates related to prior periods remains the same as for estimates made in the current period, namely, for the estimate to reflect the circumstances that existed when the transaction, other event or condition occurred.
Therefore, retrospectively applying a new accounting policy or correcting a prior period error requires distinguishing information that (a) provides evidence of circumstances that existed on the date(s) as at which the transaction, other event or condition occurred, and (b) would have been available when the financial statements for that prior period were authorized for issue from other information.
For some types of estimates (example, an estimate of fair value not based on an observable price or observable inputs), it is impracticable to distinguish these types of information. When retrospective application or retrospective restatement would require making a significant estimate for which it is impossible to distinguish these two types of information, it is impracticable to apply the new accounting policy or correct the prior period error retrospectively.
Hindsight should not be used when applying a new accounting policy to, or correcting amounts for, a prior period, either in making assumptions about what management’s intentions would have been in a prior period or estimating the amounts recognized, measured or disclosed in a prior period.
For example, when an entity corrects a prior period error in measuring financial assets previously classified as held-to-maturity investments in accordance with IAS 39 Financial Instruments : Recognition and Measurement, it does not change their basis of measurement for that period if management decided later not to hold them to maturity.
In addition, when an entity corrects a prior period error in calculating its liability for employees’ accumulated sick leave in accordance with IAS 19 Employee Benefits, it disregard information about an unusually severe influenza season during the next period that became available after the financial statements for the prior period were authorized for issue.
The fact that significant estimates are frequently required when amending comparative information presented for prior periods does not prevent reliable adjustment or correction of the comparative information (Hrd) ***